Guidance on implementing slower speed limits:
New Zealand case studies
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All local Councils should now have a Speed Limits Bylaw detailing all of the different speed limits set in their District. This Bylaw usually has a Schedule or Register of the specific locations where each limit has been enacted. Accurate details in this Bylaw are necessary for any speed limits to be enforceable by Police.
School Slow Speed Zones
Christchurch has 23 slow speed zones covering 30 schools.
Joy Kingsbury-Aitken, Road Safety Co-ordinator, Schools, Christchurch City Council
|Whangarei||40km/h part-time speed limits around 7 schools|
|Auckland City||40km/h part-time speed limits around 13 schools|
|Manukau||40km/h part-time speed limits around 22 schools|
|Hamilton||40km/h part-time speed limits around 30 schools|
|Tauranga||40km/h part-time speed limits around 3 schools|
|Wanganui||40km/h part-time school limit on Mosston Rd|
|Nelson||40km/h part-time limit on The Ridgeway near Enner Glynn School|
|Marlborough||40km/h at Fairhhall School. Slow sign at Koromiko School on SH1.||Robin Dunn Robin.Dunn@marlborough.govt.nz|
|Grey District (South Island West Coast)||Outside two schools, Karoro and Paroa Schools - both on State Highways.||Mel Sutherland, Manager of Assets and Engineering|
(03) 768 1711
|Queenstown||40km/h part-time school limit on Centennial Ave, Arrowtown|
CBD Slower Speed Initiatives
|Slow Areas||Auckland ||Point England Self explaining roads||Karen Hay, Auckland City Council|
|Slow Areas||Hamilton CBD||30km/h zone around Victoria, Ward & Collingwood St area||Robyn Denton, Hamilton City Council|
|Shared Space||Napier||Emerson St||Napier City Council|
|Shared Space||Wellington||Lambton Quay and Golden Mile (Lambton Quay to Courtenay Place) 30 km/h||Paul Barker, Wellington City Council (firstname.lastname@example.org) |
|Shared Space||Wellington||lower Cuba St, 10 km/h (proposed, Aug 2010)||Wellington City Council|
|Shared Space||Christchurch||Poplar Lane (10km/h) shared space for pedestrians, cyclists, motor vehicles, and pending the Tram||Christchurch City Council|
|Slow Areas||Christchurch||Christchurch City (following Gehl Report, Public Space Public Life, 2009) is considering rezoning the core CBD area to 30km|
(See Appendix 1 below)
Christchurch City has developed a Draft Central City Streetscape Plan (2008). The plan provides guidelines for appropriate design, development and management of streetscapes in the central city of Christchurch. It offers a design mechanism that promotes positive design outcomes to fulfil the many functions of the contemporary urban streets
The Draft Streetscape Plan covers streets within the four avenues. It is based on the Central City Transport Concept 2004, which introduces a pedestrian core inside the one way streets where pedestrian priority is signalled through the design and level of treatment of the streetscape to support a 30kmph vehicle design speed. In general this area will receive a higher level of streetscape treatment, allowing for the most cost effective investment of the council´s resources.
The pedestrian core will facilitate pedestrian and public transport access to the new bus exchange. Within the scope there are designated categories of streets that will receive different treatment based on their function.
Hugh Nicholson (Urban Designer, Christchurch City Council) email@example.com
Dunedin City Council is considering the area of the Octagon and immediately surrounding it (Dunedin CBD area, George St, The Exchange, & Moray Place) as a lower speed zone. A recent Health Impact Assessment (HIA) has been completed on the health impact of making this area a slow zone. This HIA is believed to be the first in relation to research to inform designating slow speed zones, so other places in NZ considering slower speed zones would find this useful.
Other DCC initiatives in relation to improving the speed environment:
-Whole Dunedin Central City Strategy is pending (George St, Moray Place, Exchange area, Queens garden, Uni area)
|Charlotte Flaherty (Safe and Sustainable Travel Co-ordinator, Dunedin City Council)|
firstname.lastname@example.org (03) 474 3499
| Slow Areas||Blenheim||30 km/h in Blenheim & Picton in designated area|
|Courtesy Crossings||Nelson/Tasman||Courtesy crossings numerous in Richmond's CBD and some in Nelson's especially the main street|
|Speed Humps||South Island West Coast (Buller District Council and Westland District Council)||Westland and Buller are both responding to public requests and are installing speed bumps in Snodgrass in Buller and Sunset point in Westland - near the beach lookout||1) Steve Griffin|
Buller District Council
Manager of Operations
(03) 788 9117
2) Rob Daniel (retiring so ask for his replacement)
Residential (neighbourhood areas) lower speed initiatives
|Area wide traffic calming||Wellington||Newtown: 40 km/h||WCC, Paul Barker|
|Suburban shopping centres||Wellington||Tinakori Rd, Thorndon; Aro Valley; and many others: 30 km/h||WCC|
|Suburban shopping street||Auckland|| Ponsonby Rd 40 km/h|
|Lowered speed area||Hamilton ||40km/h south of CBD (Hammond/Horne St area) |
|Lowered speed area||Tauranga||30km/h on northern part of Marine Parade, Mt Maunganui|
|Lowered speed areas||Waimakariri District||30km/h urban areas in Kairaki Beach, Pines Beach, Waikuku Beach east & Woodend Beach|
|Street calming using street renewal timing||Timaru|
Timaru District Council is using opportunities around scheduled road renewals to decrease road widths and use vertical design elements etc to slow speeds through residential areas.
See Appendix 2 below
(03) 687 7475
|Lowered Speed Areas||Nelson||40km/h on streets on Nelson Hill (Stepneyville & Beachville area)|
| Lowered Speed areas||Blenheim||50 km/h in Urban area & along Queen Charlotte Drive|
Rural Areas to increase awareness of other road users so drivers can modify their speed accordingly
Signs warning of cyclists in the area
Share the Road signs using the ice warning sign structures during the summer
"1.5 metre to pass" signs during summer season (seasonal as when most cyclists about and keeps it fresh so prevents being ignored due to familiarity)
|Grey District (South Island West Coast)||Grey District Council recently lowered the speed on a stretch of road near Cobden (Pt Elizabeth access road) from 100km/h to 70km/h after a young man was hit from behind on a very narrow road he and others were running on.||Mel Sutherland|
Manager of Assets and Engineering
(03) 768 1711
State Highway Initiatives
|Wellington, SH1||Centennial Highway, Pukerua Bay to Paekakariki||NZTA Wellington|
|Wellington, SH2||Hutt Rd from Thorndon Quay to Kaiwharawhara, 60 km/h||NZTA Wellington|
NZ Transport Agency (NZTA), ARRB (an Australian road research group), Austroads (an association of Australian and New Zealand road transport and traffic authorities) and local authority websites.
Jan Gehl Public Space Public Life Study of Central Christchurch (2009)
A city centre with a 'human' pace
A TRAFFIC CALMED CITY CENTRE speed limits within 'slow core'
CONSTRAINTS ON VEHICULAR MOVEMENT
In order to improve the quality and vitality of the city centre a reduction in vehicular traffic volumes needs to be achieved. Vehicular traffic still has an important role to play as many people are dependent on their car for getting to and from the city. The study should not be seen as a promotion for getting rid of vehicular traffic in Christchurch but more as an aim for a healthy balance between the various transport modes.
INTRODUCE SPEED LIMITS
A speed restriction of 30 km/h should be introduced within a 'slow core' in the city centre. Lowered speed limits and general traffic calming schemes will reinforce the perception of streets being city streets and not thoroughfares.
(page 47, Jan Gehl Public Space Public Life Study of Central Christchurch, 2009)
GATEWAYS TO THE CITY CENTRE
When arriving at Christchurch city centre people need to feel welcome in order to have a positive experience of the qualities, amenities and the cultural and historical activities and sights available in the city. The 'invitation' starts at the arrival to the city centre and at the gateways to the 'slow core' The most important gateways should signal a change of focus to an increased pedestrian priority. The gateways should also be linked to the city network, both visually and physically. It should be easy to find your way and orient your self! The focus should be on legibility.
Establish a legible and well defined threshold that underlines the change to the 'slow core'. A message that signals to the motorist that they now have reached a zone where all road users have the same priority.
The quality of the street can be raised in a number of ways:
• Introduce a speed limit of max. 30 km/h.
• Provide attractive walking and cycling conditions.
• Introduce the human scale in lighting etc.
• Introduce more crossings for pedestrians, so the street is no longer a barrier.
Create a traffic calmed city centre and get better streets spaces
Create a traffic calmed city centre with a reduced amount of traffic and a 'slow core' with a 30 km/h speed limit.
Important gateways to the 'slow core'. Safe comfortable streets more even balance between various transport modes (Page 94, Jan Gehl, Public Space Public Life Study of Central Christchurch, 2009)
The Speed Environment in the Timaru District, Simon Davenport, Transportation Engineer, Timaru District Council
Canterbury Active Transport (CAT) Forum 16 June 2009
Simon Davenport's (Simon) took the Forum on a pictorial trip around Timaru showing examples of how speed environments are being enhanced, or created. The location pictures were used to describe in more detail just how the philosophy is being implemented, in Timaru.
Simon's presentation explained the relationship between street design and inappropriate and unsafe vehicle speeds - and the initiative to engineer 'speed environments'.
He explained how there is a void between engineering and planning that needs to take into account urban design principles. There is also a need to raise public awareness of the risks of speeding to enable acceptance of a lower speed limit, particularly around schools, shops and tourist areas where there are volumes of pedestrians. Simon explained how narrower traffic lane widths, such as those put in place at temporary road layouts when road works and events are in operation are successful in reducing traffic speeds.
Simon outlined the standard carriageway widths and corresponding speed limits for principal, collector, local and local cul-de-sac streets. These are guidance only and local conditions such as the neighbouring street network, adjacent land uses and the district plan road hierarchy should determine in practice what speeds vehicles should travel at. Vertical design elements (side friction) such as kerbs, plantings, parked vehicles and directional changes are also being used in Timaru to lower speeds on roads - these encourage drivers to think for themselves rather than being told what to do. Cycle lanes on principal roads have also lowered traffic speeds.
Simon explained the importance of engineers meeting with colleagues in road safety (education) and the Police (enforcement) regularly to enable collaboration on issues. The key message the three 'E's' are working together to promote is that urban speed limits are not the urban speed target.
Simon was asked whether property prices have been affected by efforts in Timaru to lower speed as this can make adjacent properties a more pleasant place to live. No data is currently being collected on the influence of the speed environment on adjacent property prices. Andrew Macbeth commented that such speed analysis would be useful in informing New Zealand Transport Agency guidelines.
Simon was asked whether centre-lines had been removed from any of the roads in Timaru. This practice has just started in Timaru, with the first street having recently been done. Similar trials are currently about to take place in Auckland